Download PDF by James Barry: Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning: Extreme Forms of
By James Barry
The objective of this monograph is to study the recognized actual points of 2 strange different types of atmospheric luminous phenomena, to infer their features and homes, and to advertise efforts to enhance their realizing. those types, referred to as ball lightning and bead lightning, have visible pictures that range from the linear picture linked to normallightning. The phrases "balliightning" and "bead lightning" are used to indicate atmospheric luminous kinds that are sometimes saw and feature the geometrie form prompt by means of their identify. Vet, it really is attainable that neither phenomenon may well actually be a kind of lightning within the feel of a continuing electric discharge. Bead lightning has been defined because the residue of a cloud-to cloud or cloud-to-ground lightning stroke and has the looks of aseries of luminous balls separated through darkish areas, therefore akin to astring of pearls, and is still obvious for roughly one moment. Ball lightning has been defined as a unmarried luminous globe showing ne ar the floor after a lightning stroke and likewise closing seen for roughly one moment. either phenomena stay seen some distance longer than general lightning flashes.
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Extra info for Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning: Extreme Forms of Atmospheric Electricity
11. Movie ca me ra photograph of the persistent illumination remaining after a triggered lightning discharge. 3 sec. Reproduced with permission of P. N. Saclay. France, after P. Hubert, "Tentative pour Observer la Foudre en Boule dans la Vaisinage d'Eclairs Declenches Artificiellement," Rapport DPH/EPI76/349, 5 Mai 1975, Commissariat 11 I'Energie Atomique, Service d'Electronique Physique, Center d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, France. 12. Still camera photograph made in the mid- USA at one of the automated sites opera ted by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.
The evaporation develops apressure greater than the value S as the steam is eonstrained by the limited volume that the water has oceupied. The conversion of a volume of water V w to steam is easily greater than the value S. 06 when V is measured in cm 3 , n is the number of moles involved, and T is the temperature in 0K. Vj18 moles of steam are produced from V u' p grams of water: p is the density of water, p = 1 g cm - 3. According to the gas law, the pressure produced by water converted to steam at T = 100°C (373°K) is given by P = (VjI8)R(373)/V w .
Stenhoff (1976) discussed a balllightning that came in contact with the observer and caused burns on her hand and damage to her clothing. Owen (1886) reported an observer burned when the balllightning touched her foot, and Anon (1890e,n) reported a man burned and rendered unconscious. Babick (1955) also reported heat feit by the observer. Minchin (1895) discussed a boy injured by the phenonenon, and Wainhouse and Pitcairn (1773) report a man burned on the shoulder by a balllightning. Other re ports of injury to observers by the ball lightning heat emisson include E.
Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning: Extreme Forms of Atmospheric Electricity by James Barry