ATMOSPHERIC THERMODYNAMICS - Elementary Physics and - download pdf or read online
By Christopher J. Foot
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Additional info for ATMOSPHERIC THERMODYNAMICS - Elementary Physics and Chemistry
The unfortunate mechanical engineer simply cannot win in the face of irreversible processes. Luckily, most natural processes of interest to the atmospheric scientist are better behaved. The idealization of reversible work allows us to do calculations using p dV even though in reality it never quite works that way. In most applications that follow in this book the assumption of reversible work is adequate. 2 Heating a system In the expansion process undergone by a parcel (ﬁxed mass) in moving from (VA , pA ) to (VB , pB ), the parcel will do some work on the environment, VB VA p(V ) dV .
How long does the round trip take? 1 Ideal gas basics Gases are a form of matter in which the individual molecules are free to move independently of one another except for occasional collisions. Most of the time the individual molecules are in free ﬂight out of the range of inﬂuence of their neighbors. Gases differ from liquids and solids in that the force between neighbors (on the average over time) is very weak, since the intermolecular force is of short range compared to the typical intermolecular distances for the individual gas molecules.
It generally comes about when the variable is subjected to a long history of random jolts that add up to its current value. After a long time (many additive increments to the value of the variable) its probability distribution approaches the normal distribution. This can be proved under rather general conditions in mathematical statistics under the heading of the Central Limit Theorem. 5. This probability density function (pdf) is normalized such that ∞ −∞ P (vx ) d vx = 1 [normalization]. 16) The area under a portion of the curve between two values vx1 and vx2 is the probability of a given molecule having its x component of velocity lying in that range.
ATMOSPHERIC THERMODYNAMICS - Elementary Physics and Chemistry by Christopher J. Foot