Download e-book for kindle: Application-Specific Integrated Circuits by Michael John Sebastian Smith
By Michael John Sebastian Smith
Finished ebook on ASICs describes the newest tools in VLSI-systems layout, ASIC layout, utilizing advertisement instruments and pre-designed mobile libraries. Covers either semicustom and programmable ASIC varieties. DLC: Application-specific built-in circuits.
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Extra resources for Application-Specific Integrated Circuits
Tungsten is commonly used for these plugs. Following this we form the metal layers as sandwiches. The middle of the sandwich is a layer (usually from 3000 Å to 10,000 Å) of aluminum and copper. The top and bottom layers are normally titaniumtungsten (TiW, pronounced tie-tungsten). Submicron processes use chemicalmechanical polishing ( CMP ) to smooth the wafers flat before each metal deposition step to help with step coverage.
A typical submicron CMOS processes uses p -type (100) wafers with a resistivity of approximately 10 W cmthis type of wafer has two flats, 90° apart. Wafers are made by chemical companies and sold to the IC manufacturers. A blank 8-inch wafer costs about $100. To begin IC fabrication we place a batch of wafers (a wafer lot ) on a boat and grow a layer (typically a few thousand angstroms) of silicon dioxide , SiO 2 , using a furnace. Silicon is used in the semiconductor industry not so much for the properties of silicon, but because of the physical, chemical, and electrical properties of its native oxide, SiO 2 .
3 reflects the polarity of these pn -diodes. 3 An n -channel MOS transistor. 01 m m). A typical transistor length, L = 2 l . The bulk may be either the substrate or a well. The diodes represent pn -junctions that must be reverse-biased. The current flowing in the transistor is current (amperes) = charge (coulombs) per unit time (second). 1) We can express the current in terms of the total charge in the channel, Q (imagine taking a picture and counting the number of electrons in the channel at that instant).
Application-Specific Integrated Circuits by Michael John Sebastian Smith