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By Martin Elvins (auth.)
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Extra resources for Anti-Drugs Policies of the European Union: Transnational Decision-Making and the Politics of Expertise
This book works on the proposition that more extensive enforcement has failed to reduce the overall supply of drugs in any advanced industrialized country since the 1980s (in fact, significant increases have been the norm over this period). 3 Drug prohibition is different from most other internationally agreed rules because it is so overtly connected to the validation of metapolitical authority: the right of each state to define the political. This is directly linked to state sovereignty, hence the renewed international affirmation of prohibition (and the authority and control functions Transnational Threat in the ‘Globalized’ Era 23 of the state that it embodies) has come at a time when the institution of the state and the nature of statehood have been subject to welldocumented challenge.
Nadelmann (1990) suggests that the processes by which the global drug prohibition regime has evolved: ‘must be understood as a confluence of the perceptions, interests, and moral notions among dominant sectors of the more powerful states along with the exceptional influence of American protagonists in shaping the regime according to their preferred norms’ (p. 503). 21 Virtually all states are now formally committed to the prohibition of substances that in some cases have deep traditions and cultural or religious associations in their societies, however.
Bayer and Ghodse (1999: 12) suggest that the 1972 Protocol (which entered into force in August 1975) can be considered ‘the first response to the increased illicit cultivation of the opium poppy and the cannabis plant, the increased illicit production of cannabis, cannabis resin and opium, the increased illicit manufacture of heroin, and the increased illicit traffic in all of those drugs’. In other words, a new era had dawned, although few at the time would have anticipated the subsequent developments in drug trafficking and use.
Anti-Drugs Policies of the European Union: Transnational Decision-Making and the Politics of Expertise by Martin Elvins (auth.)