Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton PDF
By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton
This publication studies present wisdom at the dating among aerosols and precipitation attaining the Earth's floor. It contains a checklist of techniques which can support to farther strengthen wisdom during this area.
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Additional resources for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review
For example, droplet concentrations in non-polluted, non-precipitating marine cumulus clouds are generally <100 cmÀ3 while they can reach values over 1000 cmÀ3 in a polluted environment (Squires 1958) (Fig. 9). As we will see in Sect. 1, clouds with large concentrations of droplets are more colloidally stable and less likely to precipitate than clouds with small concentrations of droplets. Fig. 9 Cloud droplet number distributions measured in stratocumulus clouds in the vicinity of the Azores by the FSSP-100 (circles) and PMS 1D (diamonds) cloud probes, averaged over 15 km of flight path for case 1—clean marine air (light symbols and curve), and averaged over 4 km of flight path for case 2—continentally influenced air (dark symbols and curve).
For example, the existence of film forming compounds in the aerosol may significantly reduce the mass accommodation. This parameter has a very strong effect on the number of droplets activated, with the latter tending to decrease with increasing values of this coefficient. g. Kreidenweis et al. 2003). 2 Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CNN) Because of the uncertainties in predicting the CCN nucleating ability of atmospheric particles, an empirical approach is generally taken by measuring the concentration of particles that serve as CCN at various prescribed supersaturations; this is called the CCN supersaturation spectrum.
Worldwide measurements of CCN concentrations have not revealed any systematic latitudinal or seasonal variations. At a given location, CCN vary by several orders of magnitude with time, depending on the proximity of sources, wind direction, air mass type, precipitation and cloudiness (Twomey 1960; Jiusto 1966; Radke and Hobbs 1969). Near the Earth’s surface continental air masses generally contain larger concentrations of CCN than clean marine air masses (Fig. 6). For example, the concentration of CCN in the continental air mass over the Azores, depicted in Fig.
Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton