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By Alain Pecker
Over the last decade, the state-of-the-art in Earthquake Engineering layout and research has made major steps in the direction of a extra motive research of buildings. Scientists have lengthy well-known that earthquake layout is guided by way of displacements and deformations instead of forces. even though as a result historic heritage of structural engineers in static analyses, results of earthquake on constructions were considered as forces performing on the buildings. All shortly on hand layout development codes are built alongside those strains. Our wisdom of flooring movement features, earthquake geotechnical engineering, structural behaviour (design and numerical analyses) and version assessments have complex to some extent the place it's attainable to expect an important movement from strength established layout ways to displacements established layout techniques. even supposing displacement dependent analyses represent the kernel of so much study courses, they've got now not but been included within the country of perform.
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Additional info for Advanced Earthquake Engineering Analysis
We will assume that all the required information related to the soil characterization and structural performance is available. This in no way means that these two items are of secondary importance; the data listed under these items are probably the most difficult to assess and considerable experience is required as well as the exercise of judgment. 3 Code Approach to Foundation Design In almost every seismic building code, the structure response and foundation loads are computed neglecting soil-structure interaction; the dynamic response is obtained from a fixed base analysis of the structure.
Conceptually, A. Pecker the apparatus is similar to the triaxial apparatus used in Soil Mechanics for monotonic tests; some adaptations are however required to increase the accuracy of the measurements, especially at small strains. One can mention: a stiffer frame, the absolute requirement of having the load gage located inside the triaxial cell to get rid of piston friction,… With these modifications, the cyclic triaxial apparatus presents all the needed versatility and most of the advantages one can expect from a laboratory equipment: good definition of an otherwise homogeneous stress field, possibility of saturation of samples, capability of applying isotropic or anisotropic consolidation stresses, pore pressure measurement devices,…To improve the accuracy of the strain measurements, El Hosri introduced proximity transducers located in the central third of the sample; the displacement measurement is done without any contact with an induction coil and a metallic target placed in the magnetic field of the coil.
However there is evidence that some structures founded on unusual soils are vulnerable to SSI. Examples are given by Gazetas and Mylonakis (1998) for instance. This has been recognized in some codes. Eurocode 8 states that: "The effects of dynamic soil-structure interaction shall be taken into account in the case of: x structures where P-G effects play a significant role; x structures with massive or deep seated foundations; x slender tall structures; x structures supported on very soft soils, with average shear wave velocity less than 100 m/s.
Advanced Earthquake Engineering Analysis by Alain Pecker